Meaning

Planning means looking ahead and checking out future course of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step. Planning is a detailed programme regarding future course of action. It determines on when, how and who is going to perform a specific task

The basic idea of planning as a dialogue is to organize a district wide communication process among all main actors. These regional/district actors are resources, persons, representatives of both government and non-government organizations i.e. private sector. It is a continuous process that involves making decisions or choices about alternative ways of using available resources, with the aim of achieving particular goals in the future.

Types of planning

Planning is of several kinds depending upon their nature. For this subject we shall concentrate on the following types of plans:

i. Financial and non-financial planning. Financial planning relates to the monetary aspect of the concern for instance budgeting a certain amount of money for i.e. rural road constructions. On the other hand, non-financial planning relates to the physical resources of the concern for instance how rural roads structures should look like.

ii. Formal and informal planning. A planning in black and white is known as formal planning. Informal planning is only thinking about it and nothing more. However, formal planning is documented and each item necessary for its implementation is clearly established for example financial implications are shown, human resource required and timeframe as well as activities.

iii. Short-range and long-range planning. Short-term planning relates to a period of less than one year. It is to accomplish objectives in the near future. Medium-term planning covers a period of over one year but less than three years. A planning between three to five years is known as long-term planning.

iv. Standing and ad hoc planning. Standing plans are permanent in nature and are meant to be used repeatedly. They ensure quick decision and action whenever need arises. On the other hand, ad hoc plans are generally for specific matters and are prepared only when some need arises.

v. Administrative and operational planning. Planning is generally done at various levels of management like top level, middle level, and lower level. Administrative planning associates with middle level managers and provide guidelines to operational planning. On the other hand, operational planning associates with lower levels of management and deals with actual execution of operations. Top level planning is concerned with fixing of objectives.

Principles of Planning

Good and proper planning determines a methodical process that clearly define the steps that lead to optimal solutions. In order to achieve rural development planning, seven principles mentioned below must be incorporated in any development activity. These are:

i. Comprehensive – all significant options and impacts should be considered.
ii. Efficient – the process should not waste time or money.
iii. Inclusive – people affected by the plan have great opportunities to be involved.
iv. Informative – results are understood by stakeholders (people affected by a decision).
v. Logical – each step leads to the next.
vi. Integrated – individual, short-term decisions should support strategic, long-term goals.

Objectives of Planning

Planning can be well achieved if the following objectives may be incorporated in the planning process: These objectives are as follows:
i. To facilitate efficient and orderly management of development activities from the grass roots level to National level i.e. at family level, community i. e village, ward, district etc while including all categories of people men, women, youth and disabled group.
ii. To empower the beneficiaries including indigenous and other user of resources like land, minerals, water, forests etc to make better and more productive use of those resources. This can be done through capacity building at the grass root level to enhance sense of ownership and effective management of resources at local level.
iii. To ensure security and equity in access to resources available. Security in legal transfer of property rights must be guaranteed by a clear system to enhance equity in resource rights (UN, 2010).
iv. To promote sustainable land use practices, as the major resource for rural livelihood. Create awareness among local communities to manage their own land resource and enable them meet the basic need of the present, without damaging land for future benefit of the present population and coming generation.
v. To ensure public participation in the preparation and implementation of plans carried out in the designated rural area(s).
vi. To facilitate the establishment of a framework for prevention of resource use conflicts like land use conflicts. This can be enhanced through proper land use demarcation with clearly established procedures for land users to minimize conflict occurrence among them.
vii. To facilitate micro and macro level planning and taking into account regional and sectoral considerations by introducing key terms and concepts of economic development and promotion, using a regional approach to ensure that programmes for local economic promotion are designed with consideration of the wider spatial context of market and services system. Determination of different stakeholders/ beneficiaries groups and their capabilities, constraints and requirements in view to economic promotion is very important. Lastly, analysis should be done to observe major trends that affect economic development.
viii. Provides for inter-sectoral coordination at all levels.
ix. To ensure the use of political and administrative structures and resources available at National, regional, district and village levels.
x. Provides a framework for incorporation of such relevant principles contained in the national and structural development policies as may from time to time be defined by the government

Role of Planning

For any plan to be realistic and become successful a planner or rural development practitioner must obey the roles listed below:
i. To identify rural development problems, resources and economic needs perceived by the population.
ii. To analyze development trends, constraints, and forecast for future development.
iii. Formulate attainable regional development goals and objectives.
iv. To develop strategies and policy alternatives, and design rural development plans and programmes.
v. Transmit and link district plans with regional and national plans and policies.
vi. To assess the possible social, economic and ecological impacts of plans and programmes.
vii. Organize the decision-making processes and related participatory events at different levels.
viii. To identify and formulate individual projects and assess their feasibility for local implementation.
ix. Develop and use appropriate instruments for implementation, enforcement and control of plans and programmes.
x. Monitor and evaluate projects, plans and programmes and re-plan according to changing conditions.

Requirements of a Good Plan

An effective and sound plan should have the following features:

i. Clear objective: The purpose of plans and their components is to develop and facilitate the realization of organizational objectives. The statement on objectives should be clear, concise, definite and accurate. It should not be colored by bias resulting from emphasis on personal objectives.

ii. Proper understanding: A good plan is one which is well understood by beneficiaries i.e. those who are affected either direct or indirect by the plan. It must be based on sound assumptions and sound reasoning.

iii. Flexible: The principle of flexibility states that management should be able to change an existing plan because of change in environment without undue extra cost or delay so that activities keep moving towards the established goals. Thus, a good plan should be flexible to accommodate future uncertainties.

iv. Stable: The principle of stability states that the basic feature of the plan should not be abandoned or modified because of changes in external factors such as population trends, technological developments, or unemployment.

v. Comprehensive: A plan is said to be comprehensive when it covers each and every aspect of business. It should integrate the various administrative plans so that the whole organization operates at peak efficiency.

vi. Economical: A plan is said to be good, if it is as economical as possible, depending upon the resources available with the organization.

Nature of Planning

The nature of planning can be highlighted by studying its characteristics as presented below:
i. Planning is a mental activity. Planning is not a simple process. It is an intellectual exercise and involves thinking and forethought on the part of the manager.

ii. Planning is goal-oriented. Every plan specifies the goals to be attained in the future and the steps necessary to reach them. A manager cannot do any planning, unless the goals are known. In planning setting a goal is very important to guide, the executors go in a right track, without goal oriented the plan may go beyond the targeted results.

iii. Planning is forward looking. Planning is in keeping with the adage, β€œlook before you leap”. Thus planning means looking ahead. It is futuristic in nature since it is performed to accomplish some objectives in future.

iv. Planning pervades all managerial activity. Planning is the basic function of managers at all levels, although the nature and scope of planning will vary at each level.

v. Planning is the primary function. Planning logically precedes the execution of all other managerial functions, since managerial activities in organizing; staffing, directing and controlling are designed to support the attainment of organizational goals. Thus, management is a circular process beginning with planning and returning to planning for revision and adjustment.

vi. Planning is based on facts. Planning is a conscious determination and projection of a course of action for the future. It is based on objectives, facts and considered forecasts. Actually, planning is not guesswork, planners have to think and forecast for future development.

vii. Planning is flexible. Planning is a dynamic process capable of adjustments in accordance with the needs and requirements of the situations. Thus planning has to be flexible and cannot be rigid.

viii. Planning is essentially decision making. Planning is associated with choice of activity, as the planning process involves finding the alternatives and the selection of the best future of action. Thus, decision-making is the cardinal part of planning.

Significance of Planning

The importance and usefulness of planning can be understood with reference to the following benefits.

i. Minimizes uncertainty: The future is generally uncertain and things are likely to change with the passage of time. Planning helps in minimizing the uncertainties of the future as it anticipates future events.

ii. Emphasis on objectives: The first step in planning is to fix the objectives. When the objectives are clearly fixed, the execution of plans will be facilitated towards these objectives.

iii. Promotes coordination: Planning helps to promote the coordinated effort on account of pre-determined goals.

iv. Facilitates control: Planning and control are inseparable in the sense that unplanned actions cannot be controlled. Control is nothing but making sure that activities conform to the plans.

v. Improves competitive strength: Planning enables an enterprise to discover new opportunities, which give it a competitive edge.

vi. Economical operation: Since planning involves a lot of mental exercise, it helps in proper utilization of resources and elimination of unnecessary activities. This, in turn, leads to economy in operation.

vii. Encourages innovation: Planning is basically the deciding function of management. Many new ideas come to the mind of a manager when he is planning. This creates an innovative and foresighted attitude among the managers.

viii. Tackling complexities of modern business: With modern business becoming more and more complex, planning helps in getting a clear idea about what is to be done, when it is to be done, where it is to be done and how it is to be done.

Limitations of Planning

Although planning is a primary function of management and facilitates various other management functions, it has many barriers and limitations. Below are the limitations of planning:

i. Costly process: Planning is a costly process as time; energy and money are involved in gathering of facts and testing of various alternatives.

ii. Rigidity: Planning restricts the individual’s freedom, initiative and desire for creativity as it strictly adheres to –predetermined -policies and Programmes.

iii. Limited scope: The scope of planning is said to be limited in the case of organizations with rapidly changing situations.

iv. Influence of external factors: The effectiveness of planning is sometimes limited because of the external social, political, economical and technological factors which are beyond the control of the planners.

v. Non-availability of data: Planning needs reliable facts and figures. Planning loses its value unless reliable information is available.

vi. People’s resistance: Resistance to change hinders planning. Planners often feel frustrated in instituting new plans, because of the inability of people to accept them.

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πŸ“Œ Things are always not they seem

🌽🌽THINGS ARE NOT ALWAYS WHAT THEY SEEM
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What he didn't know was that his friend was a driver and had been sent on an errand with his boss's car!
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🌽Life does not have a universal measuring tool; so create yours and use it.
🌽Looking at people and comparing yourself with them will not make you better but bitter.
🌽If you knew the sort of load the camel carries, you wouldn't ask why it takes those gentle strides.
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So be thankful to God for what you have and enjoy it. You never know, someone may earnestly be praying for what you don't appreciate but take for granted.
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GOD BLESS US WITH MUCH MORE AS WE APPRECIATE WHAT WE ALREADY HAVEπŸ™

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πŸ“Œ Interesting story for new year

Ezra and Thomas joined a company together a few months after their graduation from university.

After a few years of work, their Manager promoted Ezra to a position of Senior Sales Manager, but Thomas remained in his entry level Junior Sales Officer position.

Thomas developed a sense of jealousy and disgruntlement, but continued working anyway.

One day Thomas felt that he could not work with Ezra anymore.

He wrote his resignation letter, but before he submitted it to the Manager, he complained that Management did not value hard working staff, but only promoted only the favoured!

The Manager knew that Ezra worked very hard for the years he had spent at the company; even harder than Thomas and therefore he deserved the promotion.

So in order to help Thomas to realize this, the Manager gave Thomas a task.

β€œGo and find out if anyone is selling water melons in town?”

Thomas returned and said, "yes there is someone!"

The Manager asked, "how much per kg?"

Thomas drove back to town to ask and then returned to inform the Manager; "they are 13.50 per kg!"

The Manager told Thomas,

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So the Manager said to Ezra, in the presence of Thomas;

β€œGo and find out if anyone is selling water melons in town?”

Ezra went to find out and on his return he said:

"Manager, there is only one person selling water melons in the whole town.

The cost is 49.00 each water melon and 32.50 for a half melon.

He sells them at 13.50 per kg when sliced. He has in his stock 93 melons, each one weighing about 7kg.

He has a farm and can supply us with melons for the next 4 months at a rate of 102 melons per day at 27.00 per melon; this includes delivery.

The melons appear fresh and red with good quality, and they taste better than the ones we sold last year.

He has his own slicing machine and is willing to slice for us free of charge.

We need to strike a deal with him before 10am tomorrow and we will be sure of beating last year's profits in melons by 223 000.00.

This will contribute positively to our overall performance as it will add a minimum of 3.78% to our current overall sales target.

I have put this information down in writing and is available on spreadsheet.
Please let me know if you need it as I can send it to you in fifteen minutes."

Thomas was very impressed and realized the difference between himself and Ezra.
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πŸ’šI love this, πŸ’šβž–βž–βž–βž–βž–βž–
Life is not about finding the right person, but creating the right relationship. It's not how we care in the beginning, but how much we care till the very end.
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It’s not important to hold all the good cards in life, but it’s important how well you play with the cards you hold.
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Often when we lose all hope & think this is the end, remember God and pray, it’s just a bend, not the end.' -
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Have faith and have a successful life. One of the basic differences between God and humans is, God gives, gives and forgives. But the human gets, gets, gets and forgets. Be thankful in life…
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If u think it is your alarm clock that woke you up this morning, try putting it beside a dead body and you will realize that it is the Grace of God that woke you up.
πŸ’šβž–βž–βž–βž–βž–βž–

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A Life facts which I have discovered

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A How do you forget?

How do you forget ?
The same qualifications you have, diploma, degree, masters, PhD that which gave you that job you have , are the same qualifications that your friends have too , but they don't have the job you have. How do you forget ?
The same pastor who officiated your marriage and blessed it, today you have even children is the same pastor who officiated and blessed even your friend's marriages but they don't have children and eventually divorced . How do you forget ?
The same prayer you offered to God and God answered you is the same prayer that your friends have been praying, but up to now they haven't recieved any answer and still praying , How do you forget ?
The same road you use to travel to places and safely you reach home, is the same road that many people have died on, How do you forget ?
The same church you go to worship God to and God has blessed you, is the same church that your friend goes to worship God too, but up to now his life is still miserable, How do you forget ?
The same bed you used in the hospital and you got healed is the same bed that your friends used too but they died in there ,* **How do you forget ?
The same voice you have and you can sing songs, you can preach, you can *talk* and so on, is the *same voice* that your friends also had but eventually *stopped singing , preaching* because they had cancer of throat, *How do you forget ?*
The *same rain* that made your *field to produce good crops* and you had bumper harvest is the *same rain* that *destroyed* your friend's fields, How do you forget ? At this end of the year Come back to your God and thank Him for his kindness.
Whatever you have , is not by your power, nor your intelligence, nor your qualifications but the Grace of God
Have a wonderful new year 2017,
Be blessed In Jesus Name !

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A How to achieve goals

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A Ways of how not to argue

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A The powerful prayer

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A How to make people think in your way

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A The journey is so short

A young lady sat in a public transport: an old grumpy lady came and sat by her as she bumped into her with her numerous bags. The other neighbor got upset, asking the young lady why she did not protest and insist on her rights: she responded with a smile: "It is not necessary to be rude or argue over something so insignificant!' I'll alight at the next stop, replied the young lady".

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A Be careful

You have been single throughout the year, and two weeks to Christmas you fall in love

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